back-office operations with higher added value than basic data entry. This includes not only more traditional data collection and processing, but also electronic publishing, site design and management, customer call centre, medical records management, hotel reservations, credit card authorizations, remote secretarial services, online technical assistance, indexing and abstraction services, research and technical writing, and technical writing. Manufacturers are increasingly attributing product design, logistics management, research and development, and support for after-sales service. Exceptions may be granted in the form of Article II exceptions. Members could apply for such exemptions before the agreement came into force. New derogations may only be granted to new members at the time of accession or, in the case of current members, by a derogation under Article IX:3 of the WTO agreement. All exceptions are subject to review; they should not, in principle, last more than 10 years. In addition, the GATS allows groups of members to enter into economic integration agreements or to mutually recognize regulatory standards, certificates and others when certain conditions are met. Services negotiations: WTO members continue discussions on continuing negotiations to gradually achieve a higher level of liberalization, as stipulated in Article XIX of the GATS.
MEPs also negotiate national regulation in the services sector. While national governments have the option of excluding certain services from liberalisation under the GATS, they are also under pressure from international trade interests not to exclude any “commercial” service. Important utilities, such as water and electricity, are most often linked to consumer purchases and are therefore clearly “commercially supplied”. The same is true of many health and education services that some countries are supposed to “export” as profitable industries.  International trade law Monitorra.irv.uit.no/trade_law/itlp.html GATS is, like all other agreements in the Uruguay Round, an annex to the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. It therefore does not have its own signing and ratification process, but will come into force at the same time as the WTO agreement and all other annexes. There is no opt-out of the GATS: those who want to take advantage of the other elements of the Uruguay cycle must also respect the GATS. It`s a marketing specialty. With the privatization of pension fund management in Chile, Chilean financial service providers have become highly developed and successful.